A fantastic article from http://www.historicaldiariesblog.wordpress.com on the siblings of Queen Victoria that no one knows about!
I ticked a long-standing aim off my bucket-list in 2018 – visiting the Bolivian Salt Flat (Salar de Uyuni). It didn’t disappoint from a natural perspective! But I was delighted to uncover some bitesize pieces of history about it. Here are some historic facts you will learn while touring the Bolivian Salt Flat:
- The Bolivian Salt Flats were formed sometime between 11,500 and 13,400 years ago years ago, the legacy of a prehistoric lake that went dry, leaving behind a desert-like, nearly 11,000-sq.-km. landscape of bright-white flat salt.
- Name Origin: Salar means salt flat in Spanish. However Uyuni originates from the Aymara language and means a pen (enclosure). So Salar de Uyuni loosely translated means ‘salt flat with enclosures’. It’s disputed as to whether or not the enclosures are referring to the various islands on the Salt Flat itself, or animal enclosures at Uyuni town itself.
- The Aymarans lived in the region before the arrival of the Spanish arrived. Today, they are one of few native south American peoples with a population of over 1 million. Aymara legend claims that the nearby mountains were original giant people. When one of the giant wives, Tunupa, was left by her husband Kusku for Kusina, Tunupa started to cry while breastfeeding her son. However, her tears mixed with milk and formed the Salar. It’s a legend, but many Aymara say that Salt Flat should be called Salar de Tunupa in her honour.
- In the centre of the salt flat sits Incahuasi Island (or Isla Incahuasi). Well, technically it’s not an island anymore, but rather, a hilly outcrop from which stunning views of the salt flat are available. Numerous fossils have been found on Incahuasi, and the whole place is the top of an ancient volcano, which was submerged by the lake some 40,000 years ago. The name comes from Quechua, with Inka meaning Inca and wasi meaning house. Inca House. (It’s sometimes also called the Isla del Pescado thanks to its fish-like profile). Oh and it’s famously covered in cacti – be warned!
- Near the town of Colchani (a salt-mining town), there is a cave on the hillside with the 900-year-old remains of eight figures. This grave is largely intact, with three full skeletons (including a mother holding a baby). The skeletons are all intentionally deformed, which is believed to have been done deliberately so that they would stand out to the Gods.
- On the outskirts of Uyuni lies an enormous Train Graveyard which most tour companies will bring you to (although it’s walkable from Uyuni town). In the 19th century, plans were afoot to build huge networks of trains out of Uyuni into neighbouring countries. but the project was abandoned because of a combination of technical difficulties and tension with neighbouring countries. There is now an enormous collection of late 19th and early 20th century rusty trains sitting on the salt plain. The salt winds have corroded the metal, and many have been vandalised, but they remain an astonishing (and marginly eerie) remnance of an industrial dream.
- One of the first things you notice in Bolivia (whether or not you end up visiting Salar de Uyuni) is that almost every Bolivian elderly woman will be wearing a Bowler Hat. It’s claimed that a line of Bowler Hats were created in the UK my two brothers, who intended to sell them to British railway workers working in Bolivia at the time. But the hats were too small for men and were instead given to local women. Today, they areworn slightly too small still – symbolic of the mistake – but the original bowler hat women were spun a yarn that this was the female fashion back in Europe!
Before you set off for a wondrous step-back-in-time on the Inca Trail (see my article here on Historic Facts I learned on the Inca Trail) there are a number of essentials you must ensure you’ve got with you. Here is what to pack when hiking the Inca Trail /Lares Trek/Salkantay Trek:
There is no excuse for skimping here – you need a proper day backpack (in addition to your main baggage) that won’t weigh you down on the trek. Your clothes and heavy baggage will be carried by llamas, so this is just for your day items while trekking. You will need a bag that can carry a few litres of water, snacks, a jacket, camera, sun cream, wipes, and more. I used the Osprey Tempest 30 litre.To be honest, I probably could have gotten away with around 22/24 litres, but I did make use of the day pack in other areas of my trip, when I often carried more, and I didn’t regret the splurge. The bag moulds to your back so that you don’t feel the weight, and is equipped with special mesh to avoid a sweaty back.
Don’t be fooled – your trainers/sneakers just aren’t going to cut it. You’re going to spend days going up and down rough terrain, and you need protection and support. NB: You can’t skimp here. That pair that cost you a few bucks won’t do the job. Be prepared to invest.
My Scarpa Women’s Terra GTC Boot were just the ticket.
Sooooo useful. Trust me. Toilet, refreshment, cleaning your hiking boots…trust me. Best 50p you’ll ever spend.
Suncream and decent Sun Glasses
The sun is a lot more biting at altitude. You are much more at risk of burning, or effects you cannot see. Furthermore, it can affect your eyes. Even at the peak of the trek, where there is snow, the sun is biting you. Always have proper protection.
50 Deet insect repellent
I forgot to slap it on one day and boy, did I regret it. Depending on the time of year you go, the mosquitoes will be out in force. South America is also a region where the zika virus is a problem, so a minimum of 50 deet insect repellent is a must. You of course should attend a travel clinic in advance of travelling to get your injections and they will certainly advise you to use 50 deet repellent.
So I made a huge mistake on the trek. For the first day in Cusco, and the early days of the trek, while everyone was feeling the effects of altitude, I felt fine. No problem. So I did something drastic. I DIDN’T TAKE ALTITUDE TABLETS. BIG MISTAKE.
Flash forward to the summit of the Lares Trek (supposedly the highlight), and there’s me, trying to smile for a photo but really trying to keep down the vomit. WORST MISTAKE. You will need to join the School of Preventative Medicine on this one. Just take ‘em.
A given for any phone-junkie – you won’t have access to power points for 3-4 days, and as you will be at altitude, you need a good back-up to charge your phone, e-reader and more. I used this Powerbank by RavPower. It charges three devices at once and always last me a few weeks. I was using my phone so much to take photos on the trail, that I definitely needed it and it didn’t let me down.
Always carry your passport and cash in one of these for safety. The CampTeck RFID Hidden Money Belt RFID Hidden Money Belt did the job for me. It had room for all the important stuff, but was hidden under my t-shirt and no-one suspected a thing. I would say that it’s absolutely vital you carry one of these.
Thermal Sleeping Bag
Don’t be fooled – it can get very cold on the trail at night. I barely slept a wink the first night I was there, and that was despite wearing a thermal underlayer and all my clothes! I’d recommend you invest in a really decent thermal sleeping bag.
Hot Water Bottle
This was one I didn’t actually have myself, but I’d advise anyone who is going to do the trek to bring. A lot of people don’t realise just how cold it can get on the trek at night. I wish I’d had a hot water bottle to help me sleep. Companies such as G Adventures will provide you with hot water in the evenings, so you could fill a hot water bottle then. But you can also buy those magic ones that heat up at the touch of a button!
The hot water bottle alone won’t do it. I found it really difficult to sleep at night because I wasn’t prepared. You must have proper thermals. I didn’t…and regretted it. If I was going again, I’d be sure to bring some proper ones. I’ve learned my lesson!
And while we’re on the topic of sleeping, again, this was something I didn’t bring and I was kicking myself! I ended up bunching up loads of clothes, but it wasn’t enough. It’s worth the extra bulk.
You’d be surprised how much you need your hands when trying to get settled in a tent in the dark! A must have-item is a good headtorch. Not least for trying to find the toiler in the dark.
This travel towel was a last-minute purchase but boy was I glad of it in the end! G Adventures give you warm water every morning and evening at your tent to wash your face, hands, and whatever else (I do remember bathing my feet in it at one point). So glad I made the decision in the end.
Your travel companies will provide you with boiled water every morning and evening. In addition to a bottle or water container, if your daypack allows, you should get a water bladder so that you don’t have to take you pack off every time you need a drink on the trek (which is a lot!). It tucks in nicely at the back of your pack with an easily accessible straw. I didn’t think I’d use mine but it came in super useful when I got altitude sick and was struggling to reach the summit.
Warm Hiking Socks
I’ve actually worn these so many times since the Inca Trail because they are so soft and warm! My bank account cried when I initially purchased them (I kept thinking: that’s an outlandish price for a pair of socks!), but I’ve seen bought a few more pairs. Not only do you keep your feet dry on the trek, but they also keep them warm at night. I’d recommend two pairs, and always go for merino wool like these ones.
Born Amy Kirby to a Quaker family on Long Island in 1802, in 1828 she married her deceased sister Hannah’s husband – Isaac Post. Isaac was a Hicksite, and after a number of years Amy converted. Hicksite’s were a more radical form of Quakerism, a seperatist group to Orthodox Quakers. Formed after the ‘Great Separation’, Hicksite’s were in fact more true to the beliefs of Quakerism from times gone by, not wanting to take on some of the influence of Protestantism that had occured in North America in the 18th century. Amy and Isaac had four children, Jacob, Joseph, Matilda and Willet, and moved to Rochester in 1836. It was there that Amy’s true calling was to emerge.
Isaac and Amy Post were to become abolitionist activists. This began with them sheltering numerous freedom seekers as part of the Underground Railroad. They hired free African-Americans to be their servants, and made acquaintance with a number of famous abolitionists, including Frederick Douglass, Abby Kelley, and William Lloyd Garrison.
As the years went on, Amy founded the Ladies Anti-Slavery Society (LASS). LASS was a perfectionist group, known for it’s involvement in churches and it’s desire to do kind gestures for people in society. However, as time went on many of Amy’s activities with LASS stopped, mainly because she was an ultraist, keen to make changes in society rather than benevolent gestures. Amy then became more involved in the Western New York Anti-Slavery Society (WNYASS). The WNYASS was a society that had both Quaker and non-Quaker members, something considered radical by other Quakers.
Amy would later have a falling out with Frederick Douglass over her committment to the WYNASS as opposed to the LASS. This largely due to Amy’s anti-slavery fairs, which he felt served little good for the abolitionist cause and he lost faith in Amy as a result.
A keen advocate of women’s rights, In 1848, attended the Seneca Falls Convention in in Seneca Falls, NY. It was the first women’s rights convention, and she and Mary Post, her stepdaughter, were among the one hundred women and men who signed the Declaration of Sentiments, which was first presented there. Two weeks later, she and several other women who had participated in the Seneca Falls Convention organized the Rochester Women’s Rights Convention in the Post’s hometown of Rochester, New York
After Isaac’s death in 1872, Amy attempted to vote. Despite being registered, she was turned away, but that didn’t deter her from trying again a year later. She devoted much of her life after the Civil War to womens’ rights. Before his death, Isaac had become a medium thanks to the influence of sisters Kate and Margaret Fox, and Amy remained friends with them until her own death.
Amy Post died in 1889, aged 86, and leaving behind her a major moral legacy.